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What is a Computer (full explanation)

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What is a computer

Technology keeps evolving every day. It has yielded many good and beneficial results, even uncountable benefits for today’s useful life. One of its benefits results is a computer.

What is a computer

What is a computer?

A computer is simply an electronic machine/device used to input, store, and process data with a set of instructions and produces the result as output. A computer has many features. It can be used to type documents, send mail, browses the Web, play games, watch videos, etc.

The word Computer was derived from the Latin word “computare,” which means to calculate. Its history began in the 19th century. It began with a primitive design by then. However, with the advancement of technology, the computer has become more complex than its first version. It became more powerful, significant, and complex in the 20th century.

Today, the look of the computer and its function are almost not recognizable from the design of the 19th century.

What is Computer hardware

Computer hardware is defined as the physical parts of a Computer with which a computer functions. Computer hardware includes the case of a computer, CPU (Central Processing Unit), mouse, monitor, Computer screen, keyboard, RAM (computer memory), Computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speaker, ventilation fans, webcam, power supply, and motherboard.

What is computer software

Computer software is the set of instructions run and stored by the hardware. For example, suppose you want to play a movie on your computer. In that case, some computer hardware will have to work before the movie can play, the speaker will have to make a sound, the screen will display the movie, and the RAM, the Computer memory, will also take action.

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A computer has many parts with very powerful and different functions, which I have listed below.

Parts of computer

There are several parts of a computer which are:

1. Motherboard

A computer motherboard is one of the essential parts of a computer. It is located inside the case of every computer. It is the main circuit board in the computer, and it connects components and helps communication occur between them. CPU, GPU, or hard drive could not interact without a motherboard. A computer motherboard has some parts, which are:

  • RAM Chip and RAM Slot: There is a maximum of 2 memory slots in the computer, which could be greater than 2; it depends on the motherboard. The computer RAM chip and RAM slot allow computer RAM (memory) to be inserted into the computer. RAM is the computer memory. The minimum capacity of RAM in the computer market starts from 2 GB. You will read more about RAM below.
  • CPU Chip and socket: A CPU socket is a physical socket that connects with the computer motherboard, and it connects with it with a series of pins.

2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The word CPU is the sort form for Central Processing Unit. CPU is one of the most crucial computer parts. It performs the computer decision-making task. CPU is considered the brain of a computer. All the computer components and peripherals are connected directly or indirectly.

There are six main components of the CPU. All the six components work together to allow processing and system control.

The six-component of CPU

  • Control unit (CU): This component regulates and integrates the operations of a computer. It fetches, decodes, and executes instructions. It also moves data around the system.
  • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): This is a CPU component that performs arithmetic and logical operation. Calculations are done with it, and decisions are made through it. And it also functions as a gateway between primary and secondary storage.
  • Registers: This CPU component is a small set of data holding places and part of the Computer processor. It is the fastest way to access data. It’s found at the top of the memory hierarchy. A cache is a part of CPU components temporarily used to hold data and instructions that the processor likely reuses. This allows the processor to work fast as the processor does not have to wait for RAM to fetch data and instructions.
  • Buses: A bus is defined as a high-speed internal connection. It sends control signals and data between the processor and another component. There are three types of bus: Address bus, Databus, and Control bus.
  • Clock: Every computer contains an internal clock. The clock measures the rate a CPU executes instructions. A CPU clock sends a regular electrical pulse, synchronizing all the components.

3. Graphics Processing Unit

The Graphics processing unit is also known as GPU in a sort form. It is also called a graphics card or video card. It’s designed to accelerate graphics rendering. It performs math calculations fast while freeing the CPU to perform other tasks.


4. Random Acess Memory (RAM)

This is also known as RAM. It’s one of the crucial parts of a computer and is considered the computer brain. It is a volatile memory. Its function is to store data regarding the programs accessed frequently and processes. But if a computer is powered down, its content will be lost.

5. Storage: Hard disk drive or Solid-state drive

Computer storage is where data(s) are stored. The unit of measuring computer storage is a gigabyte (GB in a short form) or megabyte (MB in a short form). These two are almost the same thing. The trick here is that 1000 megabytes (MB) equal 1 gigabyte(GB).

And every computer has its minimum gigabyte. This means that computer storage would be out of storage if it reaches its minimum capacity. However, there is some computer whose storage is upgradeable. To upgrade computer storage, you will have to add another hard disk drive (HDD) or a Solid-state drive (SSD) to an existing drive or replace it with the one with more space than the existing one.

6. Monitor

A computer monitor is a computer output device that displays the visual output signal of a computer’s graphics card on a screen. Its function is to enable viewing of the display interface. With this, a computer operator will be able to interact with the computer using various peripherals. Using a PC is an impossible thing without a monitor.
Several monitor types include LCD, CRT, LED, and QLED monitors.

7. Mouse

A mouse is a visible part of a computer that controls the range of things on a computer. Typically, a mouse used to have two buttons, one on the right side of the mouse and the second on the left side, in which an item is selected or clicked through it. There is a wheel in between the buttons of a mouse. The wheel is mainly used to scroll up or down whatever is on the screen.

8. Keyboard

A keyboard is a physical output device that allows users to input text into a computer. It is a primary way that enables a user to communicate with a computer. It contains several keys to communicate with a computer, including Shift, Ctrl, Caps lock, Alt, and many other keys. And also, it has A-Z and 0-9 buttons. These buttons allow the user to input text into a computer.

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9. Speaker

A computer Speaker is a hardware device that generates sound. The speaker is connected to a computer, and hardware called a sound card would have to create a signal to produce a sound and send it to a computer’s speaker before the speaker makes a sound. Any sound produced by a computer is with the help of a speaker.

10. Computer case

A computer case is the housing that encloses and helps protect many computer components. It is the visible part of a computer. Motherboard, hard drive, optical drive, etc., are what the computer case enclosed.

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